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Cytopathology also known as cytology is a subfield of pathology that deals with the studies and diagnoses of diseases on the cellular level. It aids in the diagnosis of cancer and also helps in the diagnosis of certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions as well as thyroid lesions, diseases involving sterile body cavities peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal, and a wide range of other body sites. Cytopathology is used on samples of free cells or tissue fragments. Cytopathologic tests are sometimes called smear tests because the samples may be smeared across a glass microscope slide for subsequent staining and microscopic examination. Cytology samples may be prepared in other ways such as cytocentrifugation.
Histopathology deals with the studies of microscopic examination of various forms of human tissue. Histopathology is also known as biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides. This contrasts with the methods of cytopathology which uses free cells or tissue fragments. The tissue is removed from the body of an organism and then placed in a fixative that stabilizes the tissues to prevent decay. The most common fixative is formalin although frozen section fixing is also common. To see the tissue under a microscope, the sections are stained with one or more pigments that reveal cellular components while counterstains are used to provide contrast. This session discusses more about histopathology.
Anatomical pathology or anatomic pathology is a subfield of pathology and is a medical specialty that deals with the studies of diagnosis of diseases based on the gross, microscopic, chemical, immunologic and molecular examination of organs, tissues; and whole bodies as well as in general examination or an autopsy. Anatomical pathology is itself divided into subfields, the main divisions being surgical pathology, cytopathology, and forensic pathology. Anatomical pathology is one of two main divisions of the medical practice of pathology, the other being clinical pathology, where diagnosis of disease through the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids and tissues is done. Sometimes, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a combination known as general pathology. This session discusses more about anatomical pathology.
Clinical pathology is a subfield of pathology. It is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of diseases based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine, as well as tissues, using the tools of chemistry, clinical microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology. Clinical pathologists work in close collaboration with medical technologists, hospital administrations, and referring physicians. Clinical pathologists learn to administer a number of visual and microscopic tests and an especially large variety of tests of the biophysical properties of tissue samples involving automated analysers and cultures. Incidentally, immunopathology, the study of an organism's immune response to infection, sometimes fall within the domain of clinical pathology.
Chemical pathology is also known as clinical biochemistry deals with the studies of biochemical investigation of bodily fluids such as blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid. Many illnesses are reflected in a disturbance in the body’s chemistry. By finding out how, why and where the body's chemistry has changed, diagnosis of diseases can be performed and monitored. By understanding the chemistry of bodily fluids and monitoring these, chemical pathologists can tell whether a patient's organs are working properly, diagnose diseases and recommend treatment. For instance high glucose levels in blood are a sign of diabetes. Glucose is a sugar that provides fuel for the body. The blood glucose level is regulated by the hormone, insulin. If the body doesn't produce enough insulin, diabetes may develop. Diabetes can cause eye and kidney disease, and can cause blood vessels to narrow, resulting in heart disease and poor circulation. This session discusses more about chemical pathology.
Pediatric pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of children. Pediatric pathologists generally work closely with pediatricians. Pediatric pathology works closely with pediatricians to examine and diagnose problems and diseases in children. A pediatric pathologist is a physician who specializes in the laboratory diagnosis of diseases that impact the normal growth and development of children from the embryonic stage to adolescence. Pediatric pathologists work directly with diagnosing bacteria, viruses, and other diseases by examining and testing bodily fluids as such they are bound to be at higher risk for coming in contact with an infectious disease. This session discusses more about pediatric pathology
Ophthalmic pathology has developed significantly through the years because of the efforts of committed individuals and the confluence of technology such as molecular biology and digital pathology. Ophthalmic pathology continues to be a relevant specialty that is important in the understanding and clinical management of ocular disease, education of eye care providers, and overall advancement of the field. Ocular pathology began with the detailed description of the gross anatomy of the human eye. It further developed with the concept of light microscopy and histology alongside the invention of the ophthalmoscope, enabling clinicopathologic correlation. Ophthalmic pathology has added value to the practice of ophthalmology by structurally defining and understanding ophthalmic disease processes and helping make ophthalmology the medical and surgical specialty it is today. This session discusses more about ophthalmic pathology
Immunopathology is asubfield of clinical pathology and it is concerned with the studies of an organism's immune response to a certain disease. Immunopathology studies how foreign antigens cause the immune system to have a response or problems that can arise from an organism's own immune response on itself. There are certain problems or faults in the immune system that can lead to more serious illness or disease. They are hypersensitivity reactions where there would be a stronger immune response than normal. While the other reactions range from small allergic reactions to more serious illnesses such as tuberculosis or arthritis. The other complication is autoimmunity, where the immune system attacks itself rather than the antigen. Inflammation is a prime example of autoimmunity. Similarly there are several examples of immunopathology, which this session discusses more about them.
Surgical pathology is a branch and a subfield of pathology. Surgical pathology involves the gross and microscopic examination of surgical specimens, and biopsies submitted by surgeons and non-surgeons who include general internists, medical subspecialists, dermatologists, and interventional radiologists. Two major types of specimens are submitted for surgical pathology analysis which includes biopsies and surgical resections. A biopsy is a small piece of tissue removed primarily for surgical pathology analysis to render a definitive diagnosis. Types of biopsies include core biopsies, which are obtained through the use of large-bore needles, sometimes under the guidance of radiological techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging. Incisional biopsies are obtained through diagnostic surgical procedures that remove part of a suspicious lesion, whereas excisional biopsies remove the entire lesion, and are similar to therapeutic surgical resections.This session discusses more about surgical pathology
Dermatopathology is a branch of anatomic pathology that focuses on the skin and the rest of the integumentary system as an organ. Dermatologists can recognize most skin diseases based on their appearances, anatomic distributions, and behavior. But these are never a conclusive evidence of a disease persisting. So dermatopathology takes a skin biopsy to examine under the microscope using usual histological tests. In some cases, additional specialized tests are needed to be performed on biopsies, including immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and molecular-pathologic analysis. More than 1500 different disorders of the skin exist, including cutaneous eruptions or rashes, and neoplasms, hence dermatopathologists need to broaden their knowledge on these 1500 disorders of the skin. This session discusses more about dermatopathology.
Neuropathology is a branch of pathology, and a subspecialty of anatomic pathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. Neuropathology is concerned with the diagnosis of nervous system tissue in the form of surgical biopsies or sometimes whole brains in the case of autopsy. If a disease of the nervous system is suspected, a biopsy of nervous tissue is taken from the brain or spinal cord to aid in diagnosis. Biopsy is usually requested after a mass is detected by medical imaging. Biopsies can also consist of the skin. Epidermal nerve fiber density testing (ENFD) is a more recently developed neuropathology test in which a punch skin biopsy is taken to identify small fiber neuropathies by analyzing the nerve fibers of the skin. This session discusses more about neuropathology.
Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology is considered as a specialty of both dentistry and pathology. It also intersects with the field of dental pathology. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology focuses on the diagnosis, clinical management and investigation of diseases that affect the oral cavity and surrounding maxillofacial structures including but not limited to odontogenic, infectious, epithelial, salivary gland, bone and soft tissue pathologies. Although concerned with a broad variety of diseases of the oral cavity, they have roles distinct from otorhinolaryngologists such as ear, nose, and throat specialists, and speech pathologists, the latter of which helps diagnose many neurological or neuromuscular conditions relevant to speech phonology or swallowing. Many conditions in the study of oral diseases can be diagnosed from gross examination. However biopsies, cell smears, and other tissue analysis remain important diagnostic tools in oral pathology. This session discusses more about Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology.
Gastrointestinal pathology is the subspecialty of surgical pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterization of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the digestive tract and accessory organs, such as the pancreas and liver. Gastrointestinal pathology also includes diagnosis of liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Gastrointestinal pathology involves diagnostic evaluation of surgical such as whole organ and biopsy pathology of gastrointestinal tissue. There should be consistent interaction with clinical colleagues from gastroenterologists, colorectal surgeons and gastrointestinal radiologists to ensure understanding of the clinical aspects of gastrointestinal disease, treatment modalities and other diagnostic findings. Gastrointestinal pathology also involves research in gastrointestinal physiology, disease mechanisms and histomorphology and education of general pathologists and clinical colleagues. This session discusses more about gastrointestinal pathology.
Renal pathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that deals with the studies and diagnosis and characterization of disease of the kidneys. In a medical setting, renal pathology works closely with nephrology and transplant surgeons who typically obtain diagnostic specimens via percutaneous renal biopsy. The renal pathology must synthesize findings from traditional microscope histology, electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Medical renal diseases may affect the glomerulus, the tubules and interstitium, the vessels, or a combination of these compartments. Renal biopsies are evaluated routinely by the three modalities of light microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy. Tissue studies for disease biomarkers are performed in selected cases. This session discusses more about renal pathology.
Digital pathology is a subspecialty of pathology. It is an image-based information environment which is enabled by computer technology that allows for the management of information generated from a digital slide. Digital pathology enables in part by virtual microscopy, which is the practice of converting glass slides into digital slides that can be viewed, managed, shared and analyzed on a computer monitor. With the advent of whole-slide imaging, the field of digital pathology has exploded and is currently regarded as one of the most promising avenues of diagnostic medicine in order to achieve even better, faster and cheaper diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of cancer and other important diseases. This session discusses more about digital pathology.
Veterinary pathology covers a vast array of species covering diagnoses of diseases in animals and pets. Significant amounts of pathology research are conducted on animals, for two primary reasons. Veterinary pathology is divided into the two main fields such as anatomical and clinical pathology. The origins of diseases are typically zoonotic in nature, and many infectious pathogens have animal vectors and as such understanding the mechanisms of action for these pathogens in non-human hosts is essential to the understanding and application of epidemiology. Those animals that share physiological and genetic traits with humans can be used as surrogates for the study of the disease and potential treatments as well as the effects of various synthetic products. This session discusses more about veterinary pathology.
Plant pathology deals with the study of plants and the corresponding diseases that plants have. The pathogens and their mechanics differ greatly from those of animals as plants are subject to a wide variety of diseases including those caused by fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Damage caused by insects, mites, vertebrate, and other small herbivores is not considered as part of the domain of plant pathology. The field is deeply connected to plant disease epidemiology and the horticulture of species that are of high importance to the human diet or other uses. This session discusses more about plant pathology
Forensic pathology deals with the study of determining the cause of death by post-mortem examination of a corpse or partial remains. An autopsy is performed by a coroner or medical examiner, most often during criminal investigations. Forensic pathology frequently asked to confirm the identity of a corpse. Forensic Pathology deeply studies and examines the use to determine death include examination of tissue specimens to identify the presence or absence of natural disease and other microscopic findings, interpretations of toxicology on body tissues and fluids to determine the chemical cause of overdoses, poisonings or other cases involving toxic agents, and examinations of physical trauma. Forensic pathology is a major component in the trans-disciplinary field of forensic science. This session discusses more about forensic pathology.